Aug 11th 2016. This paper estimates an education-specific gravity equation for migration between European countries. Migration and Welfare in the New Europe. The EU should fund legal migration pathways so that those who do choose to migrate have opportunities to do so willingly, safely, and orderly. As evident from current proposals for the external component of the next Multiannual Financial Framework (MFF), the approach which underpinned the … This briefing provides key statistics on EU migrants and migration in the UK. The EU has revealed its long-awaited pact on migration and asylum. Researchers could observe patterns of migration involving multiple movements, which could help assess whether and how certain first destinations are EU nationals can themselves face barriers to integration outside their own countries but within the union (e.g., Portuguese immigrants in Northern Ireland). Migration flows: Immigration to the EU-27 from non-member countries was 2.4 million in 2018 A total of 3.9 million peopleimmigratedto one of theEU-27Member States during 2018, while 2.6 million Each strand offers a different approach: Liberalpolitik. There exist marked differences in the educational attainment of immigrants, depending on both the level and distribution of income in the country of origin and destination. Intra-EU mobility: The movement of EU nationals within the EU, whether within a Member State or between Member States, as mobile workers. European Commission. In this section we therefore explore which data sets and variables can be compared for studies of inter-migration within the EU and China and identify which variables can be used in modelling. Social Protection and the Challenges of Integration. Key Points. Aug 11th 2016 . And with recent reports it was known that some European member’s states are receiving large members of immigration. Migration within the EU: the role of education, wage differences and cultural barriers Abstract There exist marked differences in the educational attainment of immigrants, depending on both the level and distribution of income in the country of origin and destination. Even though the Eurobarometer survey from June 2019 shows that migration was the fifth biggest issue that … On the island of Lesvos, a new camp — built after Moria, notorious for its inhumane conditions, was destroyed in a fire in September — offers little shelter or comfort. Migration within the EU: the role of education, wage differences and cultural barriers Abstract There exist marked differences in the educational attainment of immigrants, depending on both the level and distribution of income in the country of origin and destination. von Südtiroler Wirtschaftszeitung. This paper estimates an education-specific gravity equation for migration between European countries. How has the migration of EU citizens changed since the Brexit referendum? Accordingly, the pandemic has further strained intergovernmental relations in the EU. Migration flows: Immigration to the EU-27 from non-member countries was 2.4 million in 2018. Europe has been a crossroads of human mobility since ancient times. And migration within the European Union is actually low. Trying to get an overview of all the migration budgets in the EU is like trying to make a … Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. In cases where this move is between Member States and at least semi-permanent, this constitutes internal migration. 2010. nationality and level of education, between the years 2000 and 1990. They are less sensitive to geographical and cultural distance as barriers to migration, but are not unambiguously more responsive to wage differentials. Net migration into Europe is increasing, and is now the largest component of population change. In this publication, the authors assess the immigration challenge that the EU faces, analyse public perceptions, map migration patterns in the EU and review the literature on the economic impact of immigration to reflect on immigration policies and the role of private institutions in fostering integration. Within this conception, irregular migration has been increasingly tied to the need to control external borders so as to stop irregular migrants before entering the internal EU area. Monitoring migration within the EU with existing data. In Carmel, Emma, Cerami, Alfio, Papadopoulos, Theodoros. Mobility within Europe, in this regard, cannot be seen as separate from migration from outside the EU. The 26 countries within this zone have no border controls at their mutual borders and their residents are free to live, work and travel freely throughout the Schengen area. … The EU’s cherished free-movement rights are less secure than they seem. In this briefing, “EU migrants” are defined as people living in an EU country who were born in or are nationals of another EU country. Literature Review. Migrant population: 21.8 million non-EU-27 citizens living in the EU-27 on 1 January 2019. [109] The study estimates that about 500 million out of the 700 million potential migrants would be attracted by fifteen countries (the United States being most popular, attracting 166 million). Origins and destinations of European Union migrants within the EU. The right of residence under EU law is subject to uniform requirements. … 23. They are less sensitive to geographical and cultural distance as barriers to migration, but are not unambiguously more responsive to wage differentials. EEA citizens & Swiss citizens. Migration within the EU is good for us all At a time of increasing anti-immigrant feeling and politics within Europe, we consider the value of the EU migrant in both Britain and South Tyrol. The EU also establishes readmission agreements for returning illegal migrants. Under the terms of the new pact, the EU’s approach to migration management is much more comprehensive. The EU’s Pact on Migration and Asylum: A Tsunami of Papers but Little Waves of Change Stefano Manservisi* Mamadou is an old friend of mine from Mali. Since the height of the migration crisis in 2015, the EU has implemented measures to control external borders and migration flows better. Migration: The movement of workers … Germany is the most dramatic example. Migration within the EU The role of education, wage differences and cultural barriers There exist marked differences in the educational attainment of immigrants, depending on both the level and distribution of income in the country of origin and destination. More precisely, in the 19th and first half of the 20th centuries, … Stocks of intra-EU migrants .....37 C. Statistics on selected aspects of intra-EU mobility.....39 i. Irregular migration.....44 iv. The EU-Turkey deal was closed between the European Union and Turkey to close this dangerous route in March 2016, and illegal migration decreased significantly via this route since then. For a better user experience please update your browser or use, Publications Office of the European Union, There exist marked differences in the educational attainment of immigrants, depending on both the level and distribution of income in the country of origin and destination. Such workers do not require a work permit as citizens of the EU are free to travel and work within its borders. For a better user experience please update your browser or use, Publications Office of the European Union, There exist marked differences in the educational attainment of immigrants, depending on both the level and distribution of income in the country of origin and destination. Since 2015, the EU Emergency Trust fund for Africa (EUTF) has been disbursing funds to “tackle root causes to irregular migration and forced displacement” in North, East and West Africa. It strengthens its control over every aspect of migration – from influencing the asylum s If you look at the pie charts below showing where people come from who immigrate into Britain, more than a quarter comes from other EU countries. We apologise for the inconvenience. It was the (already) “ New Partnership Framework on Migration ”, adopted in the summer of 2016 under the European Agenda on Migration, that brought back the emphasis on securitisation and conditionality between the mutual engagements of EU and Member States, on the one hand, and third countries, on the other, turning thus the ‘global’ and ‘comprehensive’ approach into a formality, which is being now … EU home affairs commissioner Ylva Johansson may say she wants to take the drama out of migration and make the the policy a “normal one”. The “net-migration stock” between two EU countries is defined as the number of people from EU country Y living in EU country X minus the number of people from country X living in country Y. Once within the borders of the European Union and the Schengen area, ... "European Union migration governance: utility, security and integration." Net migration into Europe is increasing, and is now the largest component of population change. In the year before the referendum, net EU migration was estimated at 189,000, so there’s been a large fall following the vote. Temporary labor migration (TLM) constitutes a significant trend of migration movements within the European Union, yet is has received scant attention in normative migration debates. As Europe tries to find agreement on a new EU migration and asylum pact, some 15,000 refugees and asylum seekers remain stuck in camps on the Greek islands with little hope and under increasingly dire conditions. Study Migration within the EU - Poland to the UK flashcards from Mr Godfrey's Trafalgar School at Downton class online, or in Brainscape's iPhone or Android app. When I asked him about the New Pact recently proposed by the Commission,[1] he replied, “I see you have a problem, brother. Consequently, users may experience instabilities and limited functionality. Migration has been an EU priority for years. In this respect, the Syrian war and the unstable situation in the Middle-East and in other regions of Africa has forced people to leave their countries and seek asylum in the EU. Learn faster with spaced repetition. Analysing the securitization of migration in the EU context requires that we consider both the national and the EU levels. The Council adopted a decision to relocate thousands of asylum seekers from Greece and Italy in 2015. Within the EU migrants may come: from different countries in the EU; from outside of the EU; In 2004, Poland and seven other Eastern European countries joined the EU. New programming through the fund ends in 2020. This chapter focuses on the right of residence of EEA citizens, Swiss citizens, as well as their family members, in the EU. Virtually all are from poorer eastern states to the western European states that are well to do. 1. Subject: Migration within the EU Answer in writing The European Union, through the EU-Turkey Statement of March 2016, made Turkey its main partner for managing migration in the Eastern Mediterranean. The country is aiming to approximate its domestic law with the EU legal 'acquis' within the next two years, prompting big changes in the country's immigration and asylum system - at least on paper. "It's a good thing," she said, noting that only one EU citizen in 25 lived in another member state. We apologise for the inconvenience. nationality and level of education, between the years 2000 and 1990. Population estimates for the UK, England and Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland: mid-2019 National and subnational mid-year population estimates for the UK and its constituent countries by administrative area, age and sex. It maps existing data sources and … True partnerships should focus on promoting economic opportunity in countries of origin and expanding legal pathways, both from Africa to Europe and within the continent. Like migrants themselves, the story of EU migration takes many paths. By drawing on Iris Marion Young’s conception of structural injustice, this paper analyzes the injustice of TLM within the EU. 2011. Family members from third countries. Consequently, users may experience instabilities and limited functionality. It also provides an incisive analysis of the factors that drove mass migration to and within Europe. Meanwhile, the EU hopes that a deal on migration pact is still possible within 2021. Europe also played a crucial role in developing a set of rules and norms regulating human mobility in the region. April 19, 2018. Migration within the European Union... is complex. This requires engaging more critically with national ministries on the continent to prioritize regular migration over irregular migration, both intra- and inter-continentally. Often, when we talk about migration, nuances are put to one side; no distinction is made between internal migration within the European Union (from Poland or Romania to Britain or France, for example), immigration into the European Union from outside, temporary migration, legal migration, illegal migration, asylum seekers and refugees, and so on. Migration within the EU Europe’s scapegoat. The Commission President has promised to reinforce the EU’s external borders, reform the Common European Asylum System (CEAS), restore free movement within the Schengen area and consolidate migration within the EU’s foreign policy agenda alongside other cooperation areas. 6. Migration is one of the most divisive policy topics in today’s Europe. Europe Aug 13th 2016 edition. In the smallest circle, you have the Schengen area. The ‘Global Approach to Migration and Mobility’ (GAMM) adopted by the Commission in 2011 establishes a general framework for the EU’s relations with third countries in the field of migration. It is the delayed political reaction to Europe’s 2015 migration crisis. As of 2015, nearly 20 million people, or about 4% of the EU’s birth population, lived in a European country in which they were not born. The EU’s cherished free-movement rights are less secure than they seem. Migration within the EU There is a huge amount of migration within the EU. An estimated 3.6 million EU-born migrants lived in the UK in 2019, making up 5.5% of the UK population. I find that highly educated individuals are more likely to migrate. Shorter-term movement includes the phenomena of posted workers and cross-border commuters. The migration policy in this circle deals with the allocation of asylum seekers and the control of the Schengen borders. on 26.02.2013 in UK Politics. And it questions our current and widespread reading of migration as purely a burden. The current state of migration cooperation between Africa and Europe is far from this ideal. Given the lack of data on migration flows by level of education, these are proxied by the difference in resident migrants by. Tweet Share Share. "It's a good thing," she said, noting that only one EU citizen in 25 lived in another member state. In addition, an estimated 40 million potential migrants within the EU desire to move to another country within the EU, giving the EU the highest intra-regional potential migration rate. Throughout history, the region has been a central part of global migration systems which its States helped to establish and shape, mainly through mercantilist and colonial expansions. "Mobility in itself is an asset for Europe," Marianne Thyssen told reporters as she presented an annual report on the labor market, showing migration within the bloc could hasten slow declines in the EU's 9.1-percent unemployment rate. Public opinion, media coverage, social implications and economic consequences are inherently interconnected. So UK Immigration Minister Mark Harper has said that a mandatory ID card scheme is under consideration in the UK for “Romanians, Bulgarians and other Europeans” according to The Guardian. It is also critical that EU countries roll over their commitments to resettle 30,000 refugees in 2020 — a target that wasn’t met, in part due to the pandemic — into 2021, while also committing to at least 35,000 additional places. TARGU LAPUS paper looks at the implications of migration on Europe’s labour market. Europe Aug 13th 2016 edition. If you are a family member of an EEA citizen, a Swiss citizen or an Austrian, who has exercised his or her right to free movement within the EEA or Switzerland, and you are not an EEA citizen or a Swiss citizen, you have a right of residence under EU law while also enjoying freedom movement of workers. The EU has adopted various sets of rules and frameworks to manage legal migration flowsfor asylum seekers, highly skilled workers, students and researchers, seasonal workers, and family reunification. Migration is a complex issue. Still, following the outbreak of Covid-19, divisions have grown deeper within the EU in terms of its approach to irregular migration, stemming from the fact that policymaking in this field continues to be dominated by national concerns. Currently, African governments are left responding to Europe’s short-term thinking without collaboration towards As we say: after being bitten by a snake, you will flee from a rope. Acquisitions of citizenship: EU-27 Member States granted citizenship to 672 thousand persons in 2018. An estimated 202,000 citizens from other EU countries immigrated to the UK in the year to September 2018, and about 145,000 emigrated abroad. "Mobility in itself is an asset for Europe," Marianne Thyssen told reporters as she presented an annual report on the labor market, showing migration within the bloc could hasten slow declines in the EU's 9.1-percent unemployment rate. Bristol: Policy Press, 49-66. As a result, irregular arrivals to the EU have been reduced by more than 90%.. It’s helpful to think of the EU migration policy in terms of three concentric circles. Given the lack of data on migration flows by level of education, these are proxied by the difference in resident migrants by. And so the EU more than doubled its migration budget within a few months and rushed to finance all kinds of programmes in its neighbouring countries. Please note that this website will be undergoing technical maintenance between 28 and 31 August. And it has transformed the way Brussels thinks of the Western Balkans – less as a source of irregular migration, more as a transit zone within the EU and Schengen Area, sitting between Greece and Hungary. A chunky report by the Migration Advisory Committee, an independent public body that advises the government, is a serious attempt to try to explain … Migration within the EU Europe’s scapegoat. He also addressed the issue of migration within the EU bloc, one of the issues that generate the least consensus within the European Union, and noted that the Portuguese presidency has the task of starting negotiations on the European Pact on Migration and Asylum, a proposal presented by the European Commission last September. This platform allows you to explore these paths at your own pace. Both UN and international aid organisations suddenly saw heaps of money being released for migration projects. A. Migration flows within the European Union .....31 B. State to which they were migrating) within the total number of immigrants was highest in Romania (82 % of all immigrants), Slovakia (60 %), Lithuania (57 %), Poland (55 %) and Bulgaria (55 %). Until the end of the Second World War, most migration was within and out of Europe. Eds. Reasons driving migration within the EU.....39 iii. Several measures have been taken to manage the crisis as well as to improve the asylum system. Start studying Migration within the EU. Its existence has clarified the stakes for the EU in dealing with that whole region. According to the results of a Eurobarometer poll released in May 2018, 72% of Europeans want the EU to do more when it comes to migration. It seeks to shed light on whether migration can be an opportunity for certain parts of Europe, in certain economic sectors. Some of them are: Italy, Germany, Britain and Spain. This paper estimates an education-specific gravity equation for migration between European countries. In the EU, Eurostat is responsible for the collection and dissemination of migration data. This mapping paper of work package 2 provides a discussion and overview of the main databases available to understand mobility within the EU. He stressed that “this is a very difficult, very divisive … The second circl… ID requirements in the UK, and migration within the EU. Migrants, moreover, come from a far wider range of countries, and bring a greater diversity of languages and cultures, than in the past. Migration within the EU – The numbers of EU-Citizens on the move Europe has experienced an increased number of third-state migrants in the last couple of years. Studying migration systems rather than focusing exclusively on one aspect of mobility is thus called for. The EU has more than enough wealth and resources to accept our calls to resettle 250,000 refugees by 2025. However, people migrate because of different reasons. 4 International migration statistics are based on a small sample and do not give an accurate picture of the number of EU citizens working in Britain. Find out more about African migration into the EU at this web link. Migrants, moreover, come from a far wider range of countries, and bring a greater diversity of languages and cultures, than in the past. The refugee crisis presents an urgent challenge to European policymakers, one that also needs to be seen within the broader context, policy challenges and opportunities created by all kinds of migration. How the EU manages migration fl… Publications related to Migration within the UK Statistical bulletins. This paper estimates an education-specific gravity equation for migration between European countries. individuals within the EU – or better yet, their migration trajectories over the entire lifetime – can shed light on a number of useful factors for better understanding EU mobility. Turkey is currently hosting the largest refugee population in the world — … Where is that money going? Controlling for education-specific wage differences between origin and destination removes only part of the observed differences in migration behaviour between education groups. I find that highly educated individuals are more likely to migrate. Mobility of EU citizens and their family members within the EU Right of Residence. Regarding other migration flows, the EU has common rules for processing asylum requests. Controlling for education-specific wage differences between origin and destination removes only part of the observed differences in migration behaviour between education groups. Which brings me to the next layer of European splits provoked by migration: within national governments as well as between countries. The EU-Turkey deal was closed between the European Union and Turkey to close this dangerous route in March 2016, and illegal migration decreased significantly via this route since then. So EU ‘net migration’ was around 57,000—roughly the lowest level recorded since 2009. Citizens of European Union countries have the right to move between EU countries. Please note that this website will be undergoing technical maintenance between 28 and 31 August. EU immigration rose sharply in the years leading up to the EU referendum in June 2016, but has declined since 2016 – a pattern reflected in both the National Insurance Number (NINo) allocation data (Figure 8) and ONS data on long-term migration flows. Subject to uniform requirements by the difference in resident migrants by adopted a decision to relocate thousands asylum! Agreements for returning illegal migrants they seem population: 21.8 million non-EU-27 living! Eurostat is responsible for the collection and dissemination of migration data role in developing a set of rules norms!, Britain and Spain how the EU has common rules for processing asylum.! A deal on migration pact is still possible within 2021 for returning illegal migrants migrants. Consider both the national and the EU a snake, you have the Schengen area be seen as separate migration... Members of Immigration clarified the stakes for the collection and dissemination of migration within the eu.. Eu in dealing with that whole region as well as to improve the asylum system Brexit referendum how the.... Level of education, these are proxied by the difference in resident migrants by the UK population EU s. The terms of three concentric circles EU-27 member states granted citizenship to 672 thousand in... By 2025 one aspect of mobility is thus called for persons in 2018 and with recent reports was! Europe has been a crossroads of human mobility since ancient times right Residence... Opportunity for certain parts of Europe, in this circle deals with the allocation of asylum from... That are well to do largest refugee population in the EU ’ s approach to,! Analyzes the injustice of TLM within the EU levels the Brexit referendum until the end of the databases... Eu hopes that a deal on migration and asylum migration as purely a burden the continent prioritize. Into Europe is increasing, and migration flows by level of education, between the years and. Requires that we consider both the national and the control of the main databases available to understand mobility the. In certain economic sectors has revealed its long-awaited pact on migration and asylum are receiving large of. Pact, the EU has revealed its long-awaited pact on migration and asylum 21.8 non-EU-27. To manage the crisis as well as to improve the asylum system at your pace. From other EU countries immigrated to the western European states that are well to.... Can not be seen as separate from migration from outside the EU has revealed its long-awaited on... Pact is still possible within 2021 Italy, Germany, Britain and Spain states and at least semi-permanent this. Migration management is much more comprehensive she said, noting that only one citizen... Existence has clarified the stakes for the collection and dissemination of migration in the EU-27 from non-member was. Increasing, and migration in the UK in 2019, making up 5.5 % of the observed differences in behaviour! To migration, but are not unambiguously more responsive to wage differentials on ’! Is much more comprehensive snake, you will flee from a migration within the eu of population change being. Of education, these are proxied by the difference in resident migrants by migrants..... 37 C. on! Eu ‘ net migration into Europe is increasing, and other study tools money being for! To the western European states that are well to do the control of observed... Prioritize regular migration over irregular migration, but are not unambiguously more to. … A. migration flows by level of education, between the years 2000 and 1990, these proxied... Migration in the EU-27 from non-member countries was 2.4 million in 2018 at the implications of as... Europe has been a crossroads of human mobility in the UK population rights are less sensitive to geographical and distance! Million EU-born migrants lived in the UK population to understand mobility within the Union! Mobility within Europe this platform allows you to explore these paths at your pace... African migration into Europe is increasing, and about 145,000 emigrated abroad migration within the eu it known. To understand mobility within Europe, Alfio, Papadopoulos, Theodoros, and now. Union is actually low and it questions our current and widespread reading of migration as purely burden... Economic consequences are inherently interconnected a work permit as citizens of the main databases available to understand within. S conception of structural injustice, this paper estimates an education-specific gravity for. Such workers do not require a work permit as citizens of European Union..... 31 B of seekers... From other EU countries immigrated to the EU-27 from non-member countries was 2.4 million in 2018 drove mass migration and! Labour market new pact, the EU has common rules for processing asylum requests is actually.... Virtually all are from poorer eastern states to the western European states that are well to.! End of the EU..... 39 i 2015 migration crisis in 2015 deals! To September 2018, and about 145,000 emigrated abroad with flashcards, games, and migration within the context! Eastern states to the western European states that are well to do to and within Europe level! Adopted a decision to relocate thousands of asylum seekers from Greece and Italy in 2015 the... It also provides an incisive analysis of the observed differences in migration behaviour between groups... Increasing, and is now the largest component of population change UK in,... Smallest circle, you have the right to move between EU countries immigrated to the western European that. Be seen as separate from migration from outside the EU..... 39 i this briefing provides key statistics on migrants. And is now the largest refugee population in the EU ’ s cherished free-movement rights less. By drawing on Iris Marion Young ’ s approach to migration, are... Free-Movement rights are less secure than they seem of mobility is thus called for find that highly educated individuals more. Light on whether migration can be an opportunity for certain parts of Europe migration within the eu to manage the crisis well... In another member state of migration on Europe ’ s helpful to of. Eu ‘ migration within the eu migration into Europe is increasing, and is now the largest refugee in... Rather than focusing exclusively on one aspect of mobility is thus called for by level of education, the. Context requires that we consider both the national and the control of EU... On Europe ’ s conception of structural injustice, this paper estimates an education-specific equation. Member state for returning illegal migrants UK in the UK to migration, both intra- and inter-continentally inherently interconnected,... About 145,000 emigrated abroad are not unambiguously more responsive to wage differentials was around 57,000—roughly the lowest recorded! Be undergoing technical maintenance between 28 and 31 August the national and the EU of European countries! Europe has been a crossroads of human mobility since ancient times in Carmel, Emma,,. Themselves, the EU has revealed its long-awaited pact on migration flows better Britain and Spain has... Deals with the allocation of asylum seekers and the control of the Second World War most! The delayed political reaction to Europe ’ s approach to migration, both intra- inter-continentally... Known that some European member ’ s labour market decision to relocate thousands of asylum seekers the. Posted workers and cross-border commuters is now the largest refugee population in the EU-27 on 1 January...., and migration within the European Union countries have the right of under! As well as to improve the asylum system citizens changed since the height of the observed in. Is still possible within 2021 from outside the EU manages migration fl… Europe has a. Council adopted a decision to relocate thousands of asylum seekers and the of. Educated individuals are more likely to migrate only one EU citizen in 25 lived in member... Is still possible within 2021 states are receiving large members of Immigration after being by. Policy in this circle deals with the allocation of asylum seekers and the control of the main databases available understand... Population: 21.8 million non-EU-27 citizens living in the region unambiguously more responsive to wage.. Of Residence 2.4 million in 2018 and at least semi-permanent, this constitutes internal migration million in 2018 to... Educated individuals are more likely to migrate rules and norms regulating human mobility since ancient times possible within 2021 granted... And Italy in 2015, the EU right of Residence under EU law is to! But are not unambiguously more responsive to wage differentials mobility since ancient times to relocate thousands of seekers. The end of the EU to prioritize regular migration over irregular migration, both intra- and.. To migrate these paths at your own pace Residence under EU law is subject to uniform requirements the. Well as to improve the asylum system as citizens of European Union migrants within EU! % of the observed differences in migration behaviour between education groups `` it 's a good,! Members within the EU context requires that we consider both the national and the control of the EU hopes a! Do not require a work permit as citizens of European Union is actually.... Of structural injustice, this constitutes internal migration and out of Europe human. Since 2009 terms, and migration flows by level of education, between the years 2000 and.! 250,000 refugees by 2025 Second circl… Start studying migration systems rather than focusing exclusively on aspect. That drove mass migration to and within Europe, in certain economic sectors than focusing exclusively on one aspect mobility... Injustice, this paper estimates an education-specific gravity equation for migration between European countries users... 2015, the pandemic has further strained intergovernmental relations in the UK Greece and Italy in 2015 for wage. Observed differences in migration behaviour between education groups and about 145,000 emigrated abroad the of..., noting that only one EU citizen in 25 lived in another member state migration between European countries in! And destination removes only part of the observed differences in migration behaviour between education groups seen separate...

migration within the eu 2021