Meaning of solanum tuberosum. Wikipedia ; See also . Meaning of solanum tuberosum. Solanum tuberosum L.. SpecimenId: 461952 SpecimenText: Zak, Vlastimil - 1564 Caption: Zak - 1564 - Ecuador Image kind: Herbarium Specimen Full sized images can be … Gratin dauphinois, consisting of baked thinly sliced potatoes with cream or milk, and tartiflette, with Reblochon cheese, are also widespread. In Northern India, alu dum and alu paratha are a favourite part of the diet; the first is a spicy curry of boiled potato, the second is a type of stuffed chapati. The definition of Solanum Tuberosum is followed by practically usable example sentences which allow you to construct your own sentences based on it. [59], Potatoes are often broadly classified as having a high glycemic index (GI) and so are often excluded from the diets of individuals trying to follow a low-GI diet. Solanum tuberosum definition in English dictionary, Solanum tuberosum meaning, synonyms, see also 'solan',solum',solarium',solatium'. Vada pav is a popular vegetarian fast food dish in Mumbai and other regions in the Maharashtra in India. Immature potatoes may be sold as "creamer potatoes" and are particularly valued for taste. [15] In many of the chronicles detailing agriculture and plants, no distinction is made between the two. [19] Potatoes are mostly cross-pollinated by insects such as bumblebees, which carry pollen from other potato plants, though a substantial amount of self-fertilizing occurs as well. [34] In general, varieties are categorized into a few main groups based on common characteristics, such as russet potatoes (rough brown skin), red potatoes, white potatoes, yellow potatoes (also called Yukon potatoes) and purple potatoes. During the crop year 2008, many of the certified organic potatoes produced in the United Kingdom and certified by the Soil Association as organic were sprayed with a copper pesticide[75] to control potato blight (Phytophthora infestans). In 2012, GMO development in Europe was stopped by BASF. As of 2014, potatoes were the world's fourth-largest food crop after maize (corn), wheat, and rice. Tubers form in response to decreasing day length, although this tendency has been minimized in commercial varieties.[20]. Anthocyanins mainly responsible for red or blue pigmentation in potato cultivars do not have nutritional significance, but are used for visual variety and consumer appeal. [72] Three successive plowings, with associated harrowing and rolling, are desirable before planting. The concentration of glycoalkaloids in wild potatoes is sufficient to produce toxic effects in humans. Home gardeners often plant a piece of potato with two or three eyes in a hill of mounded soil. solanum tuberosum n : annual native to south america having underground stolons bearing edible starchy tubers; widely cultivated as a garden vegetable; vines are poisonous [syn: potato, white potato , white potato vine, solanum tuberosum] Dictionary source: hEnglish - advanced version More: English to English translation of Solanum tuberosum [44] Another GM potato variety developed by BASF is 'Fortuna' which was made resistant to late blight by adding two resistance genes, blb1 and blb2, which originate from the Mexican wild potato Solanum bulbocastanum. The United States was the most productive country, with a nationwide average yield of 44.3 tonnes per hectare (19.8 short tons per acre). Puddings made from grated potatoes (kugel, kugelis, and potato babka) are popular items of Ashkenazi, Lithuanian, and Belarusian cuisine. Potatoes are boiled between 10 and 25[94] minutes, depending on size and type, to become soft. [5][6][7] In the Andes region of South America, where the species is indigenous, some close relatives of the potato are cultivated. For short-term storage, temperatures of about 7 to 10 °C (45 to 50 °F) are preferred. The Tattie scone is a popular Scottish dish containing potatoes. https://www.thefreedictionary.com/Solanum+tuberosum, A significant association between Liriomyza huidobrensis leafminers and Alternaria solani fungus is reported here for the first time in a commercial potato (, The Andes are the center of origin and diversity of many plants, including cultivated potatoes (, Estimation of Genetic Variation and relationship in Potato (, [3.] During the second, photosynthesis begins as the plant develops leaves and branches above-ground and stolons develop from lower leaf axils on the below-ground stem. Pub. Further inspection and separation occurs when the potatoes are unloaded from the field vehicles and put into storage. Invented in 1949, and marketed and sold commercially by Hasbro in 1952, Mr. After flowering, potato plants produce small green fruits that resemble green cherry tomatoes, each containing about 300 seeds. F raw green soybeans The potato was slow to be adopted by European farmers, but soon enough it became an important food staple and field crop that played a major role in the European 19th century population boom. Three thousand of them are found in the Andes alone, mainly in Peru, Bolivia, Ecuador, Chile, and Colombia. It remains an essential crop in Europe, especially Northern and Eastern Europe, where per capita production is still the highest in the world, while the most rapid expansion in production over the past few decades has occurred in southern and eastern Asia, with China and India leading the world in overall production as of 2018. [60], In the UK, potatoes are not considered by the National Health Service (NHS) as counting or contributing towards the recommended daily five portions of fruit and vegetables, the 5-A-Day program.[61]. [67] These locations are selected for their cold, hard winters that kill pests and summers with long sunshine hours for optimum growth. Today they are a staple food in many parts of the world and an integral part of much of the world's food supply. [40] In 2010, potatoes were bioengineered specifically for these pigmentation traits. All content on this website, including dictionary, thesaurus, literature, geography, and other reference data is for informational purposes only. The Moche culture from Northern Peru made ceramics from the earth, water, and fire. List of sequenced plant genomes on Wikipedia. What does solanum tuberosum mean? OneIndia Hindi Dictionary offers the meaning of Solanum tuberosum in hindi with pronunciation, synonyms, antonyms, adjective and more related words in Hindi. [82] The commercial storage and retrieval of potatoes involves several phases: first drying surface moisture; wound healing at 85% to 95% relative humidity and temperatures below 25 °C (77 °F); a staged cooling phase; a holding phase; and a reconditioning phase, during which the tubers are slowly warmed. Kleinkopf G.E. Accompanying each fluorescent lectin is an analysis data sheet summarizing the results of our quality control tests and providing pertinent information on the product. John Donald. Amylose, a long-chain molecule, diffuses from the starch granule when cooked in water, and lends itself to dishes where the potato is mashed. Solanum tuberosum n. A taxonomic species within the family Solanaceae – potato. Potato Head is an American toy that consists of a plastic potato and attachable plastic parts, such as ears and eyes, to make a face. In this respect, potato tuber tissue is similar to, Potatoes have been delivered with personalized messages as a novelty. There is one pentaploid cultivated species (with 60 chromosomes): S. curtilobum. Love (eds), University of Idaho Agricultural Communications, 363–81. China and India accounted for over a third of world's production in 2010, and had yields of 14.7 and 19.9 tonnes per hectare respectively. [42], Waxy potato varieties produce two main kinds of potato starch, amylose and amylopectin, the latter of which is most industrially useful. Millet's technique for this work incorporated paste-like pigments thickly applied over a coarsely textured canvas. In Western Europe, especially in Belgium, sliced potatoes are fried to create frieten, the original French fried potatoes. Potatoes are also used for purposes other than eating by humans, for example: Peruvian cuisine naturally contains the potato as a primary ingredient in many dishes, as around 3,000 varieties of this tuber are grown there. ), as well as the food plants eggplant and tomato. Eliminating all root-weeds is desirable in potato cultivation. D raw potato with flesh and skin However, it is used in northern China where rice is not easily grown, with a popular dish being 青椒土豆丝 (qīng jiāo tǔ dòu sī), made with green pepper, vinegar and thin slices of potato. 1 potatoes are the highest quality and No. [82], On the other hand, temperatures below 4 °C (39 °F) convert the starch in potatoes into sugar, which alters their taste and cooking qualities and leads to higher acrylamide levels in the cooked product, especially in deep-fried dishes. Solanum tuberosum L., 1753: Fiur da pòmm da tèra. pulling out the young tubers by hand while leaving the plant in place. Commercial growers cover them by piling additional soil around the base of the plant as it grows (called "hilling" up, or in British English "earthing up"). Solanum tuberosum meaning in Bengali - আলু; ; murphy; | English – Bangla & English (E2B) Online Dictionary. Proper usage and audio pronunciation of the word Solanum tuberosum. Solanum is a large and diverse genus of flowering plants, which include three food crops of high economic importance, the potato, the tomato and the eggplant (aubergine, brinjal). [114], During the late 19th century, numerous images of potato harvesting appeared in European art, including the works of Willem Witsen and Anton Mauve. E raw cassava [55] In the Altiplano, potatoes provided the principal energy source for the Inca civilization, its predecessors, and its Spanish successor. [47][48], In November 2014, the USDA approved a genetically modified potato developed by J.R. Simplot Company, which contains genetic modifications that prevent bruising and produce less acrylamide when fried than conventional potatoes; the modifications do not cause new proteins to be made, but rather prevent proteins from being made via RNA interference.[49][50][51]. New potatoes may be cooked with mint and are often served with butter.[107]. The discovery of acrylamides in starchy foods in 2002 has led to international health concerns. Ó Gráda, Cormac, Richard Paping, and Eric Vanhaute, eds. [18][14], Potato plants are herbaceous perennials that grow about 60 cm (24 in) high, depending on variety, with the leaves dying back after flowering, fruiting and tuber formation. Most potato dishes are served hot but some are first cooked, then served cold, notably potato salad and potato chips (crisps). Solanum tuberosum (potato) is the worlds fourth most important food crop after rice, wheat and maize. [37], Dozens of potato cultivars have been selectively bred specifically for their skin or, more commonly, flesh color, including gold, red, and blue varieties[38] that contain varying amounts of phytochemicals, including carotenoids for gold/yellow or polyphenols for red or blue cultivars. Wound-response studies are often done on potato tuber tissue, as are electron transport experiments. [a][83], Under optimum conditions in commercial warehouses, potatoes can be stored for up to 10–12 months. A total of 36 unique pesticides were detected on potatoes over the 2,216 samples, though no individual sample contained more than 6 unique pesticide traces, and the average was 1.29 detectable unique pesticide traces per sample. [79] The skin of creamer potatoes is waxy and high in moisture content, and the flesh contains a lower level of starch than other potatoes. [108] German fries and various version of Potato salad are part of German cuisine. [45][46] In October 2011 BASF requested cultivation and marketing approval as a feed and food from the EFSA. Solanum tuberosum, better known as the potato, is a popular vegetable crop for home gardeners. [117], "Spud" redirects here. At harvest time, gardeners usually dig up potatoes with a long-handled, three-prong "grape" (or graip), i.e., a spading fork, or a potato hook, which is similar to the graip but with tines at a 90° angle to the handle. The world dedicated 18.6 million hectares (46 million acres) to potato cultivation in 2010; the world average yield was 17.4 tonnes per hectare (7.8 short tons per acre). Z raw plantains [3] The potato was originally believed to have been domesticated by indigenous peoples of the Americas independently in multiple locations,[4] but later genetic testing of the wide variety of cultivars and wild species traced a single origin for potatoes. Illustration #85 in: Martin Cilenšek: Naše škodljive rastline, Celovec (1892) A creamer potato is a variety of potato harvested before it matures to keep it small and tender. Like potatoes in general, they can be prepared by boiling, baking, frying, and roasting. [69][70], New tubers may start growing at the surface of the soil. G raw sweet potato One popular favourite involves a baked potato with cheddar cheese (or sour cream and chives) on top, and in New England "smashed potatoes" (a chunkier variation on mashed potatoes, retaining the peel) have a great popularity. 2 are rated as lower in quality due to their appearance (e.g. The result is then usually run past workers who continue to sort out plant material, stones, and rotten potatoes before the potatoes are continuously delivered to a wagon or truck. The earliest archaeologically verified potato tuber remains have been found at the coastal site of Ancon (central Peru), dating to 2500 BC. [36], The European Cultivated Potato Database (ECPD) is an online collaborative database of potato variety descriptions that is updated and maintained by the Scottish Agricultural Science Agency within the framework of the European Cooperative Programme for Crop Genetic Resources Networks (ECP/GR)—which is run by the International Plant Genetic Resources Institute (IPGRI). [13][14] The name originally referred to the sweet potato although the two plants are not closely related. The staple was subsequently conveyed by European mariners to territories and ports throughout the world. The average quantity of all pesticide traces found in the 2,216 samples was 1.602 ppm. Many cultivars exist in varying textures, sizes, and colors that are suited for a variety of culinary uses. The page not only provides Urdu meaning of Solanum Tuberosum but also gives extensive definition in English language. However, this does not provide a definitive guide, as greening and glycoalkaloid accumulation can occur independently of each other. [56], In 2018, world production of potatoes was 368 million tonnes, led by China with 27% of the total (table). Potato tubers may be susceptible to skinning at harvest and suffer skinning damage during harvest and handling operations. Like all parts of the plant except the tubers, the fruit contain the toxic alkaloid solanine and are therefore unsuitable for consumption. Potatoes are also a major ingredient as fast food items, such as aloo chaat, where they are deep fried and served with chutney. The subunits can dissociate in solution to produce a monomeric form of the lectin which does not agglutinate cells. [8][57], A raw potato is 79% water, 17% carbohydrates (88% is starch), 2% protein, and contains negligible fat (see table). The distinction may also arise from variation in the comparative ratio of two different potato starch compounds: amylose and amylopectin. [58] When a potato is baked, its contents of vitamin B6 and vitamin C decline notably, while there is little significant change in the amount of other nutrients. They bear white, pink, red, blue, or purple flowers with yellow stamens. In larger plots, the plow is the fastest implement for unearthing potatoes. It remains an essential crop in Europe (especially northern and eastern Europe), where per capita production is still the highest in the world, but the most rapid expansion over the past few decades has occurred in southern and eastern Asia. [12] Cooking at high temperatures—over 170 °C (338 °F)—partly destroys these compounds. [79] Slightly older than creamer potatoes are "new potatoes", which are also prized for their taste and texture and often come from the same varieties. Long time in our memory finished work. 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