Frank Möller, “Photography after Empire: Citizen-Photographers or Snappers on Autopilot?” New Political Science 32, no. Ajay Heble, Landing on the Wrong Note: Jazz, Dissonance and Critical Practice (New York and London: Routledge, 2000), 78. There are questions like: Who is editing this material? Michael J. Shapiro, Cinematic Geopolitics (London and New York: Routledge, 2009). Martha Rosler adds, “Documentary testifies, finally, to the bravery or (dare we name it?) Roberts explains the “process of secondary ostension” as follows: “by pointing at one thing, we may in fact be making clear that we are pointing at something else, relating one thing metonymically, synecdochically, to another thing” (154–155). W. J. T. Mitchell, Picture Theory: Essays on Verbal and Visual Representation (Chicago and London: University of Chicago Press, 1994), 16. (192) There is no reason to assume, either, that artists and artworks can achieve what other social agents fail to achieve. . Elderfield, Manet and the Execution of Maximilian, 44. Mitchell, for example, notes that the invisible affects the imagination more strongly than the visible.145 Artist João Louro, in his work shown at the Venice Art Biennale in 2015, focuses on the invisible—on “what’s behind, what’s hidden, covered, veiled from the mirror”146 —with the aim of countering manipulation by the image. (191) Congress created the NEA in 1965 as an independent agency to support and promote artistic endeavors. Adams, Why People Photograph, 33. “Habits of seeing are estranged strategically in the hope of opening up a space to think differently (about warfare, about landscape, about photography, about vision).”165 David Campany continues by warning that this is “a risky strategy, always provisional and contingent upon the cultural norms that are being challenged.”166 However, the traditional photojournalistic approach resulting in “generally interchangeable images of violence’s apex”167 is equally risky in that it may produce and reproduce predictable—and deeply problematic—patterns of viewing. Jacques Rancière emphasizes that “images of art … help sketch new configurations of what can be seen, what can be said and what can be thought,” but they do so only “on condition that their meaning or effect is not anticipated.”21 Art, thus, may move—and make audiences move—from what is or what is said to be to what may be or could be or even, normatively, should be. More ambitiously (and controversially), it explains the world differently and renders visible what other forms of social inquiry hide (for a variety of reasons). Trends in current security policies, including military technologies relying on multiple forms of obscurity, remoteness, inaccessibility, and invisibility, can be understood neither from a conventional political science point of view nor by focusing entirely on technological developments. It may visualize the replacement of experiences of violent change with expectations of peaceful change while simultaneously acknowledging that this is not a linear process, but rather one characterized by ups and downs, progression and regression. See also Simon Baker and Shoair Mavlian, eds. Current research also explores art’s critical and emancipatory potentialities, as well as participatory art and social activism in light of new forms of political communication. Peter Gilgen understands this relationship as an “intellectual stereoscopic effect” and specifies that “the image gains in profile through the verbal information conveyed in the caption; from the accompanying image this information gains persuasive power.” In this understanding, words and images seem intimately connected, equally important and mutually supportive; their relationship “is one of a certain mutual critique.”75 Other authors insist on the untranslatability of words into images and vice versa. Awam Ampka (Lisbon: Sextante Editora, 2012), 182. (170) 191 (Summer 2008): 38. Lisle, “Surprising Detritus of Leisure,” 879. Sociologically, the first question that has to be asked when confronted with written or verbal interpretations of images is “says who?,” because “concrete individuals and groups of individuals serve as definers of reality,”74 visually communicated or otherwise. (4) (206) This is not always unproblematic, but it might also be understood as a platform for discursive engagement with what we believe we see. The tension between the tranquility of the photographs and the violence of the drone attacks that these photographs reference offers another access to van Houtryve’s work because, as Strauss explains, for an image to “be compelling, there must be tension in the work; if everything has been decided beforehand, there will be no tension and no compulsion to the work.” Tension is the condition of possibility for viewers to become involved in the work in a position other than as mere recipients of an artist’s message, thus enabling “a more complex response.”156 Furthermore, if art is political if it “extends the thread of recognition and understanding beyond what previously was seen and known,”157 then we have to add that art is also political if this extension does not produce knowledge conventionally understood and instead confuses, irritates, and unsettles the recipient. Furthermore, it is also difficult to establish a causal connection between photography and peace. Abigail Solomon-Godeau, Photography at the Dock: Essays on Photographic History, Institutions, and Practices, foreword by Linda Nochlin (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2003), 176. Painted in the 1930s, “Guernica” highlights the inhumanity of the Spanish Civil War, which brought dictator Francisco Franco to power in Spain. Sociopolitical art is used to assist people in comprehending political and social issues, by creating art that expresses concerns … Martha Rosler, “The Bowery in Two Inadequate Descriptive Systems: In, Around, and Afterthoughts (on Documentary Photography),” in, Frank Möller, “The Violence of Witnessing,” in, Mark Reinhardt, “Picturing Violence: Aesthetics and the Anxiety of Critique,” in, David Campany, “What on Earth? Even in the absence of a causal connection, however, things may be connected with one another. Olivier Asselin, Johanne Lamoureux, and Christine Ross (Montreal: McGill-Queen’s University Press, 2008), 7. Emphasis on text reflects tradition,68 but also the subordination of the visual to the written prevalent in journalism,69 whereas in art photography, skepticism about verbal explanations of the visual can be very strong.70 Emphasis on text ignores that there is something evasive in images, which cannot be grasped by means of words but has to be analyzed all the same if images are to be fully understood. This is so regardless of the limitations of such collaborative projects—and the occasional hyperbole linking such projects with emancipation, democratization, and empowerment—as noted by photographer Eric Gottesman: I have often seen images from projects that undercut the good intentions of the projects’ initiators by falling back into the old stereotypes and power dynamics that the collaborative process intends to avoid. (70) (74) The number of images of human suffering reflects the number of people in pain, and no individual can hope to alleviate the suffering of all of them, visually represented or not. (57) Steve Smith, “Singing Our World into Existence: International Relations Theory and September 11,” International Studies Quarterly 48, No. Although today’s artists, from painters and sculptors to musicians and filmmakers, rely less on government as a source of support, patronage lives on in state arts organizations and federal agencies such as the National Endowment for the Arts (NEA). (162) (147) (144) James Johnson, “‘The Arithmetic of Compassion’: Rethinking the Politics of Photography,” British Journal of Political Science 41, no. Lisle, “Surprising Detritus of Leisure,” 876. We saw ourselves shining in all our specificity. Buckley, “Workshop of Filthy Creation,” 838. Sontag notes that “people remember through photographs.” She also notes that this is a “problem” because “they remember only the photographs,”200 and James Elkins adds that “photographs of people I know and love are actually a poison to memory, because they remain strong while my memories weaken.”201 Photographs as two-dimensional representations, which are never identical with that which they claim to represent, tend to replace what Primo Levi called “the raw memory” and to grow “at its expense.”202 The idea of raw memory, fixed and unchangeable, is also problematic, as memory tends to evolve, adapted to the requirements of the present. Copyright 2021 Leaf Group Ltd. / Leaf Group Media, All Rights Reserved. (184) Bleiker, Aesthetics and World Politics, 19. Historically, political authorities have been a source of patronage for … Furthermore, equating science with the production of generalizable knowledge is one approach to science among others. (140) Alex Danchev, On Art and War and Terror (Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2009), 3. (208) Aftermath photography shifts emphasis from “the event” to “the event-as-aftermath”174 and by so doing moves from moment to process. (36) (130) As I have suggested elsewhere when discussing Vik Muniz’s work in a popular community in Rio de Janeiro, which like JR’s is based on close cooperation between the artist and local people, being an agent of their own image is important, third, because—no matter what happens with the resulting images, no matter how audiences respond, and whether or not living conditions improve in fact—the experience of having participated in the production of works of art not as subjects of somebody else’s projects but as co-artists, as agents of their own image, is something that “nobody can take … away from them because this experience is ingrained indelibly in their individual and social memory.”191 This is also an important ingredient of those participatory photography projects in which people who have formerly been represented by others take their own pictures by means of cameras given to them by the people who are in charge of the projects. Where is it being shown? (183) Politically engaged citizens can become artivists too—as citizen photographers (see Figure 1), for example, or as citizens engaged in countersurveillance that challenges authority. It is more common to argue that the photographer, exploiting the subject depicted, attracts the spotlight. Approaches to the study of politics and art have to be aware of, and they necessarily reflect, the individual subject positions of the individual who is doing the analysis; hence the “auto”-element in many writings on politics and art either deliberately restricting analysis to first-person narratives or implicitly acknowledging that no text can be thought of without its author. Indeed, there is no reason to assume that artists and artworks are necessarily progressive and critical. Edelman believes art provides us with models, scenarios, narratives, and images we draw upon in order to make sense of political events, and he explores the different ways art can shape political perceptions and actions to both promote and inhibit diversity and democracy. It is also important to note that these artists, by employing all sorts of digital technologies and combining them skillfully, successfully challenge widely held assumptions of African backwardness, technological and otherwise. (32) A good starting point for reflections on peace photography—or peace photographies—is aftermath photography (see above). Rogers, Delia’s Tears, 293 (brackets in original). Nor is it protective of the beholder: “in order to recover our (critical) composure and equilibrium” and “to try to protect the human being we are looking at” (p. 160), we have, in this instance, to look away—only, crucially, to return to the image later “as a critical assimilation of the perceived suffering” (p. 163). If such cooperation emerges authentically from the community (bottom-up) rather than being imposed by policymakers (top-down), then photographic documentation, as one element among many others, can contribute to the normalization of cooperation and perhaps to reconciliation. I revisit this idea in the section on peace and participation. Jay Prosser, Light in the Dark Room: Photography and Loss (Minneapolis and London: University of Minnesota Press, 2005), p. 90. “The social-relational content of the photograph is not simply descriptive-historical, but affective and empathic: in short, it provides an emotional ‘hold.’”71 Questions pertaining to emotive and affective dimensions of the visual experience, however, are notoriously difficult to grasp; hence the tendency in liberal thought to declare the affective dimensions of art “personal matters.” This designation has the additional benefits of depoliticizing emotions and strengthening liberal politics by excluding those from full participation who are alleged to be less rational and more emotive.72. 1 (2015): 1–121. Ritchin, Bending the Frame, 98. Art and the individual. This raises questions about the role of politics in art. Danchev, On Art and War and Terror. Pablo Picasso’s famous painting “Guernica” stands as one example. Hall has a Doctor of Philosophy in political economy and is a former college instructor of economics and political science. It is, however, problematic, as those “subjects” do not always ask artists to represent them. Those artistic experiences without a political agenda are relaxing for many people. Positive approaches to the visualization of peace are not the rule; the question of what a photography of peace would have to look like is not often asked.176 This omission reflects not only the powerful photojournalistic tradition of war photography,177 but also the formidable difficulties faced by photographers interested in the positive visualization of peace. Stefanie van de Peer, role of art in politics can be difficult for those entering museums and theaters expecting to entertainment! Surely the relationship between the arts often have an adversarial relationship, “ Surprising Detritus of Leisure, 108. 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