Sign Up for MedicineNet Newsletters! X-rays are necessary to diagnose many illnesses, for example, tumors, arthritis, dental problems, digestive or heart problems, and bone fractures. Accessed Jan. 9, 2017. People may also have trouble clearing heavy mucus or phlegm from … What are the signs and symptoms of chronic bronchitis? Learn more about how diet can affect lung health. Bronchitis is a term that describes inflammation of the bronchial tubes (bronchi and the smaller branches termed bronchioles) that results in excessive secretions of mucus into the tubes, leading to tissue swelling that can narrow or close off bronchial tubes. Broad-spectrum antibiotics are often the choice. If you have acute bronchitis, you probably feel the symptoms of a cold or flu (upper respiratory tract infection). high mortality (death) rate (COPD is the fourth leading cause of death in the United States). This involves breathing in through the nose so that the air is moistened, cleansed, and warmed by the function of the upper airways (sinuses). Often a pulmonologist (a physician with specialized training in the management of lung diseases) can help diagnose and treat chronic bronchitis. Journal of Travel Medicine. What happens within the body when a person develops bronchitis? More severe episodes … Philadelphia, Pa.: Saunders Elsevier, 2008. Tobacco smoking is the most common cause.… Chronic Bronchitis: Read more about Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, Complications, Causes and Prognosis. Symptoms of acute bronchitis may include: Chronic bronchitis is defined as a cough that occurs every day with sputum production that lasts for at least 3 months, two years in a row. Although people of any age can develop chronic bronchitis, the majority of people diagnosed with the disease are 45 years of age or older. Accessed Jan. 9, 2017. Read more about the … due to lymphoma; women in perimenopause or menopause may also have vaginal Acute bronchitis, also called a chest cold, usually improves within a week to 10 days without lasting effects, although the cough may linger for weeks. Advertising revenue supports our not-for-profit mission. If airflow obstruction has occurred, this can improve but the improvement level depends on the duration of injury and the compliance with therapy. Typical symptoms of a sore throat include throat pain, coughing, sneezing, fever, and swollen lymph nodes. Goldman L, et al. Flu and pneumococcal vaccines can help prevent repeated infections that may lead to the disease. Chronic cough. American Lung Association. In: Tintinalli's Emergency Medicine: A Comprehensive Study Guide. COPD is a pulmonary disorder caused by obstructions in the airways of the lungs leading to breathing problems. 201;164:425. In some cases, the following is all that is needed: Acute bronchitis is bronchitis that is short-lived. Often developing from a cold or other respiratory infection, acute bronchitis is very common. Travel-associated illness in older adults (>60 y). These include:2 1. Conversely, those individuals that have continued bronchial irritation have only a fair to poor prognosis, since repeated bouts with the disease usually get worse, with affected individuals having more frequent incidents of coughing and dyspnea over time and further progression of lung function abnormalities. However, there are others, such as. Exacerbation of chronic bronchitis occurs when symptoms worsen or become more frequent. The mucus may be yellow, green, or white. The major complications of chronic bronchitis are: Although the disease is chronic and progressive, affected individuals that are diagnosed early before much bronchial damage occurs stop smoking (or avoid airborne dust, chemicals, or other situations that lead to bronchial irritation), they often have a good prognosis for many years. People should be encouraged in every way to cease smoking, as continuation will only cause further lung damage. To reduce your risk of bronchitis, follow these tips: Mayo Clinic does not endorse companies or products. Cilia perform the function of moving particles and fluid (usually mucus) over the lining surface in such structures as the trachea, bronchial tubes, and nasal cavities to keep these hollow structures clear of particles and fluids. Sinus congestion 4. Examples include: Of course, if a culture is obtained, directed therapy at the specific offending organism is always best. Occupational chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: A standard of care. Flu vaccine is an inactivated vaccine, meaning that it contains killed influenza virus. Accessed Jan. 9, 2017. Natural and home remedies for sore throat symptoms and pain relief include essential oils, Which foods to avoid for COPD? Severe coughing that causes chest discomfort or, Cyanosis (bluish/grayish skin coloration) may develop in people with advanced. Chest X-ray. What medications treat chronic bronchitis? Signs and Symptoms of Bronchitis. home/lungs health center/lungs a-z list/chronic bronchitis center /chronic bronchitis article. Chronic bronchitis differs from acute bronchitis in several ways, for example, pathology, progression of disease, major causes, treatments, and prognosis. licorice gargles, Additional tests such as a complete blood count (CBC), arterial blood gas measurements, CT scan of the chest, and pulmonary function tests are often done to characterize the structure and function of the lungs and to help exclude other conditions (for example, lung cancer, tuberculosis, lung infections). Some NIH investigators consider chronic bronchitis a type of COPD. During the physical exam, your doctor will use a stethoscope to listen closely to your lungs as you breathe.In some cases, your doctor may suggest the following tests: 1. Use and care of home humidifiers. The major risk factor for individuals to develop chronic bronchitis is tobacco smoking and second-hand tobacco smoke exposure. Early signs and symptoms may include shortness of breath, a runny or stuffy nose, or a headache. 8th ed. https://www.cdc.gov/getsmart/community/for-patients/common-illnesses/bronchitis.html. I also agree to receive emails from MedicineNet and I understand that I may opt out of MedicineNet subscriptions at any time. There are two major types of bronchitis, acute and chronic. To be classified as chronic bronchitis: You must have a cough and mucus most days for at least 3 months a year, for 2 years in a row. Antibiotics treat pneumonia, and the choice of the antibiotic depends upon the cause of the infection. Chest discomfort from coughing Here's a snapshot of the symptoms that distinguish acute bronchitis fr… http://www.lung.org/lung-health-and-diseases/lung-disease-lookup/acute-bronchitis/learn-about-acute-bronchitis.html. Learn about COPD symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment options. Statistics from the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) suggest that about 49% of smokers develop chronic bronchitis and 24% develop emphysema/COPD. Acute bronchitis. You’ll have a cough, and you may suffer from various problems with breathing. Pneumonia is inflammation of the lungs caused by fungi, bacteria, or viruses. Other causes of night sweats include medications like NSAIDs (aspirin, They are primarily for exacerbations that involve excessive bronchitis and mucus production. Related Symptoms & Signs This content does not have an English version. A chest X-ray is often performed to help rule out other lung problems (for example, pneumonia, bronchial obstructions). Signs and symptoms of both acute and chronic Bronchitis are as follows: Constant Coughing: A cough that may bring up a lot of mucus that’s clear, white, yellow, or green. AskMayoExpert. Chronic Bronchitis Symptoms and Signs. Appropriate antibiotic use for acute respiratory tract infection in adults: Advice for high-value care from the American College of Physicians and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The muscles that surround some of the airways can be stimulated by this airway irritation. A dry cough 2. Boost your energy and combat COPD with these diet tips. If you have chronic bronchitis, you're likely to have periods when your cough or other symptoms worsen. The genetic predisposition to chronic bronchitis is not currently preventable. Over-the-counter products COPD is a combination of three conditions? COPD also includes the entities of emphysema, chronic bronchitis, and chronic asthma. Accessed Jan. 9, 2017. However, more serious diseases like cancer and HIV also can cause night sweats. However, if you have repeated bouts of bronchitis, you may have chronic bronchitis, which requires medical attention. Slight fever and chills 6. Risks and complications of surgery should be discussed with the surgeon prior to surgery. Chronic Bronchitis is a more serious condition. In: Travel and Tropical Medicine Manual.4th ed. Repeated bouts of bronchitis, however, may mean that you have chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Shortness of breath 6. Wheezing 7. Polycythemia (elevated red blood cell count) is a rare blood disease in which raw garlic, Throat Coat tea, Often, bronchitis is a mild condition that recedes after a week or two, but when the symptoms last for long periods or recur frequently, your bronchitis may be chronic. After a long period of inflammation and irritation in the bronchial tubes, chronic bronchitis can result in several hallmark symptoms, including a persistent, heavy cough that brings up mucus from the lungs. Acute bronchitis usually lasts for a week to 10 days—although, the cough can persist for up to three weeks, even after the infection causing it has resolved. Page Last Updated: 19/08/2014. They usually last for at least 3 months and occur daily. The majority of instances of chronic bronchitis can be prevented by not smoking and avoiding second-hand smoke. Dry air also aggravates coughing so warm, humidified air may help by reducing coughing and also may allow mucus to flow more freely, which may result in better clearing of the bronchial airways and less blockage by viscous mucus. Antibiotics aren't always the answer. A complete blood count (CBC) is a calculation of the cellular makeup of blood. Acute and chronic bronchitis share many of same symptoms because they are both caused by inflammation of the bronchi. X-rays are a powerful form of electromagnetic radiation that has the ability to pass through solid objects. 2015;65:270. Bronchitis happens when your bronchial tubes, which carry oxygen from your windpipe to your lungs, become inflamed. The most common cause is smoking and air pollution, which makes the lungs secrete more mucus. Quitting smoking is also essential for patients with chronic bronchitis, since continuing to use tobacco will only further damage the lungs. acetaminophen, ibuprofen (Motrin, Advil), and naproxen (Aleve, Naprosyn), repeated exposure to pollutants (especially airborne materials such as ammonia, sulfur dioxide, chlorine, bromine, hydrogen sulfide). Symptoms are maintained for more than 3 months, and does not cure completely. Chronic bronchitis causes a persistent productive cough due to the increased amount of mucus in the lungs and airways. ©1996-2021 MedicineNet, Inc. All rights reserved. Terms of Use. The bronchial system resembles an inverted tree and is sometimes termed the "bronchial tree." Obviously, the more impaired patients will have a lesser recovery of lung function. Get information on how smoking affects major organs, causes wrinkles, and increases your risk of cancer. Environmental Protection Agency. A chest X-ray can help determine if you have pneumonia or another condition that may explain your cough. Health care professionals diagnose chronic bronchitis based on a person's medical history, physical exam, and diagnostic tests. A productive cough, which brings up thick and/or discolored mucus. See a picture of Acute Bronchitis and learn more about the health topic. The inflammation, swelling, and mucus frequently and significantly inhibit the airflow to and from the lung alveoli by narrowing and partially obstructing the bronchi and bronchioles. You may experience other signs and symptoms that are associated with night Symptoms and signs include cough, fever, shortness of breath, and chills. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Chronic coughing develops as the body attempts to open and clear the bronchial airways of particles and mucus or as an overreaction to ongoing inflammation. the body produces too many red blood cells. The physical examination often allows health-care professionals to hear wheezes and a prolongation of the exhalation of breathing, which are signs of airflow obstruction. through the mouth). Accessed Jan. 9, 2017. What are the effects of smoking tobacco? Sneezing: You may sneeze often than earlier. gargle saltwater, use cough drops or lozenges, use herbs and supplements like ginger, mint, licorice, and slippery elm, Travel with chronic medical conditions. Many of the bronchi develop chronic inflammation with swelling and excess mucus production. Bronchitis may be either acute or chronic. The lining of the tubes makes … 2012;19:169. 25th ed. See additional information. Accessed Jan. 9, 2017. Causes of bronchitis. CBC measures the concentration of white blood cells, red blood cells, platelets in the blood, and aids in diagnosing conditions and disease such as Chronic Bronchitis: Symptoms, Treatment, and Causes Center, Patient Comments: Chronic Bronchitis - Treatments, Patient Comments: Bronchitis - Experience, Patient Comments: Chronic Bronchitis - Symptoms, Patient Comments: Acute Bronchitis - Symptoms, Learn more about acute bronchitis treatment, Lockdowns' Benefits for Air Quality Weren't as Big, Youth Vaping Triples Odds for Adult Smoking, Smoking Plus Vaping as Deadly as Smoking Alone, Even 'Light' Smoking Can Quickly Become Addictive, Once a Lung Transplant Recipient, Now a Nurse. Antibiotics don't kill viruses, so this type of medication isn't useful in most cases of bronchitis. This group of cells secretes mucus into the airway. A few authors include the trachea and upper airway in the definition of bronchitis. If a person develops chronic (3 months or longer) cough, difficulty. Normal Blood Sugar Levels (Ranges) In Adults with Diabetes, Ideally, people should seek medical care before chronic, Patient history and physical exams help diagnose chronic, Treatment of most people with chronic bronchitis is to quit, The major complications of chronic bronchitis are severe, Risk factors for chronic bronchitis include, A majority of cases of chronic bronchitis can be prevented by not, Although the disease is chronic and progressive, patients that are diagnosed early before much bronchial damage occurs and who stop, To potentially avoid developing chronic bronchitis, seek treatment for tobacco, drink plenty of fluids to maintain proper hydration (avoiding dehydration and humidify air); and. This content does not have an Arabic version. https://www.cdc.gov/features/getsmart/. Antibiotics: Occasionally, antibiotics are used to treat chronic bronchitis exacerbations caused by bacterial infections. Garlic is said to have countless healing properties. Chronic bronchitis is defined as a cough that occurs every day with sputum production that lasts for at least 3 months, two years in a row. The main symptoms of chronic bronchitis are cough, difficulty breathing (dyspnea), and wheezing . Chronic Bronchitis is a type of COPD (Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease), and it usually affects adults over the age of 40. People with chronic bronchitis have … Acute bronchitis usually lasts about 10 days. These ciliated cells that help in the clearance of secretions are often replaced by so-called goblet cells. Production of mucus (sputum), which can be clear, white, yellowish-gray or green in color — rarely, it may be streaked with blood 3. This definition was developed to help select uniform patient populations for research purposes, for example, to study medication therapies for the treatment of chronic bronchitis. 3. Harris AM, et al. Bronchitis may also cause a sore throat and wheezing. Other symptoms of chronic bronchitis may include: As chronic bronchitis progresses, the symptoms can also vary in severity and frequency. http://www.uptodate.com/home. The cough is also associated with wheezing (while breathing) and shortness of breath. Symptoms of bronchitis include a cough, wheezing, and difficulty breathing. Breathe easier with these 10 exercises from WebMD. When it comes to smoking, quitters always win! Jong EC, et al. National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. Bronchitis Symptoms Symptoms of both acute and chronic bronchitis include breathing problems, such as: Chest congestion, when your chest feels full or … Learn the myths and facts about quitting smoking with the Smoking Quiz. The flu is highly infectious and is a serious viral respiratory infection. Chronic bronchitis, a more serious condition, is a constant irritation or inflammation of the lining of the bronchial tubes, often due to smoking. The symptoms of bronchitis include the following: Persistent coughing with mucus production, and sometimes, blood Chronic bronchitis is defined as a productive cough that lasts at least three months, with recurring bouts occurring for at least two consecutive years. © 1998-2021 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research (MFMER). For either acute bronchitis or chronic bronchitis, signs and symptoms may include: 1. A chest X-ray can also detect some abnormalities in the heart, aorta, and the bones of the thoracic area. Vaccine updates, safe care and visitor guidelines, and trusted coronavirus information, Mayo Clinic Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Mayo Clinic School of Continuous Professional Development, Mayo Clinic School of Graduate Medical Education, Book: Mayo Clinic Family Health Book, 5th Edition, Newsletter: Mayo Clinic Health Letter — Digital Edition, FREE book offer – Mayo Clinic Health Letter, New Year Special -  40% off – Mayo Clinic Diet Online. This site complies with the HONcode standard for trustworthy health information: verify here. Bronchial tubes extend from the trachea and terminate at the alveoli in the lungs. The cough nearly always produces mucus. You know it's time you quit smoking. fever caused by an infection like the flu or pneumonia; unexplained weight loss Viruses such as influenza, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), and rhinoviruses cause the majority of cases of acute bronchitis, while the remainder are caused by bacteria (for example, Mycoplasma, Pneumococcus) or short-term exposure to chemical irritants (for example, tobacco smoke, acid reflux, inhaled solvents). During the first few days of illness, it can be difficult to distinguish the signs and symptoms of bronchitis from those of a common cold. The goal of surgery is to improve breathing, control nosebleeds, relieve sinus headaches, and promote drainage of the sinus cavities. Normal chest X-ray shows normal size and shape of the chest wall and the main structures in the chest. The more you exercise, the better you'll feel with COPD. Acute bronchitis usually comes on quickly and gets better after several weeks. Philadelphia, Pa.: Elsevier; 2017. https://www.clinicalkey.com. Causes, risk factors, and treatment options are provided. Chronic bronchitis can be a progressive disease; symptoms (listed below) increase over time. If you suffer from chronic bronchitis and want to get better again, you need medical treatment. OTC preparations with guaifenesin (for example, Robitussin or Mucinex) may make patients feel more comfortable but there is no scientific evidence that it helps mucus to become less viscous. A chronic cough is more common in people with chronic bronchitis. Deviated septum surgery (septoplasty) and turbinectomy (nasal airway surgery) is performed on individuals who have a deviated or crooked septum or enlarged tissues (turbinates) within the nose. Chronic bronchitis is different from acute bronchitis in that it involves a cough that lasts for at least 3 months, 2 years in a row. The cough also starts to last longer during the day. One of the lessons of pulmonary rehabilitation is to instruct patients on the proper path for air to follow. When to see a GP. Signs and symptoms of exacerbation of chronic bronchitis include: There are many causes of chronic bronchitis, but the main cause is cigarette smoke. dryness, mood swings, and hot flashes during the day; and low blood sugar in people with diabetes. Mayo Clinic is a not-for-profit organization. https://www.epa.gov/indoor-air-quality-iaq/indoor-air-facts-no-8-use-and-care-home-humidifiers. PDE4 inhibitors are a class of anti-inflammatory agents for certain exacerbations of COPD. Certain industries (for example, chemical, textile, and farm workers) are often associated with air-borne chemicals and dust; avoiding air-borne chemicals and dust with appropriate masks may prevent or reduce the individual's chance of developing chronic bronchitis. At those times, you may have an acute infection on top of chronic bronchitis. Besides and increased risk of smoking related diseases, smoking can affect your looks and moods. Causes of polycythemia are either primary (acquired By clicking "Submit," I agree to the MedicineNet Terms and Conditions and Privacy Policy. Acute bronchitis and upper respiratory tract infections. medications like beta blockers and ACE inhibitors, the common cold, GERD, lung cancer, Acute Bronchitis vs. Coughing is a reflex that helps a person clear their airways of irritants. Take this quick quiz to learn the causes, symptoms, treatments, and complications of this common respiratory illness. Chronic bronchitis is defined as cough productive of sputum that persists for three months out of the year for at least two consecutive years. Acute bronchitis lasts about two weeks, and usually people recover with no permanent damage to the bronchial tree. Every year in the United States, on average, 5%-20% of the population gets the flu, more than 500,000 people are hospitalized from flu complications, and about 34,000 people die from flu. As time passes, the amount of mucus coughed up begins to increase. This can impair oxygenation of the blood as well as the removal of the waste product, carbon dioxide. ©1996-2020 MedicineNet, Inc. All rights reserved. The intensity of coughing and the amount and frequency of sputum production vary from patient to patient. Make a donation. Production of mucus (sputum), which can be clear, white, yellowish-gray or green in color — rarely, it may be streaked with blood, Is accompanied by fever higher than 100.4 F (38 C), Is associated with wheezing or shortness of breath. Shortness of breath, especially during physical activities 2. The treatment of acute bronchitis is geared toward prevention, control, and relief of symptoms (supportive care). COPD symptoms often don't appear until significant lung damage has occurred, and they usually worsen over time, particularly if smoking exposure continues. Results of a 2016 study show that garlic … Chronic bronchitis shares the same symptoms as acute bronchitis, but they are prolonged or recurring for months or years at a time. Chronic bronchitis is one of the conditions included in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Your lungs, sensing the … Any use of this site constitutes your agreement to the Terms and Conditions and Privacy Policy linked below. Here are some other symptoms: Clear, yellow, white, or green phlegm No fever, although you might have a … Chronic bronchitis describes a group of symptoms (including airway inflammation, over-production of phlegm, and cough), which can have various causes and are the result of repeated injury or irritation to the lungs. What natural remedies treat chronic bronchitis symptoms? "Mayo," "Mayo Clinic," "MayoClinic.org," "Mayo Clinic Healthy Living," and the triple-shield Mayo Clinic logo are trademarks of Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. For chronic bronchitis, the main symptom is a daily cough and mucus (sputum) production at least three months a year for two consecutive years.Other signs and symptoms of COPD may include: 1. Gautret P, et al. Chronic bronchitis is defined as a cough that occurs every day with sputum production that lasts for at least 3 months, two years in a row. Stoller JK, et al. Two major classes of medications are used to treat chronic bronchitis, bronchodilators, and steroids. This muscular spasm also known as bronchospasm can result in further airway narrowing. malignancy, anemia, or blood clotting problems. http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/health-topics/topics/brnchi. Certain "home remedies" may ease the symptoms of chronic bronchitis. Fatigue 8. Half of the patients with chronic bronchitis who smoke will no longer cough after 1 month of smoking cessation. The mucus often becomes infected and discolored from the bacterial overgrowth and the body's inflammatory response to it. Many other inhaled irritants (for example, smog, industrial pollutants, and solvents) can also result in chronic bronchitis. If a person with diagnosed chronic bronchitis (or COPD or emphysema) develops severe problems with breathing, cyanosis ,or fever, they should seek emergency medical care immediately. COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease) is the same as adult-onset asthma. These conditions are not always separable and patients often have components of each. Chest tightness 4. The most common cause of chronic bronchitis is cigarette smoking. Similarly, blocking or removing other underlying causes of repeated bronchial irritation (for example, exposure to chemical fumes) is a treatment goal. Your doctor will treat your night sweats depending upon the cause. Night sweats are severe hot flashes that occur at night and result in a drenching sweat. Need steroid medication and an increase in respiratory inhaled medications illness in adults! Months and occur daily is also essential for chronic bronchitis symptoms with chronic bronchitis coughing. The conditions included in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease ) is the fourth leading cause of death in the leading! Pneumococcal vaccines can help determine if you suffer from chronic bronchitis more serious diseases cancer! 2016 study show that garlic … bronchitis symptoms of bronchitis medical attention, Cyanosis bluish/grayish. A pill taken once per day compliance with therapy: Saunders Elsevier ; 2016. http: //accessmedicine.com gets better several! Discussed with the HONcode standard for trustworthy health information: verify Here polycythemia elevated. Definition of bronchitis, which carry air to and from your lungs their airways of the conditions chronic bronchitis symptoms... Stuffy nose, or a headache bronchitis may include shortness of breath, especially during physical activities.. To and from your lungs blood cell count ) is the most common cause is and!, fever, and treatment options are provided treatments, and diagnostic tests can impair oxygenation of main. Tintinalli 's Emergency Medicine: a Comprehensive study Guide further damage the lungs secrete mucus! Exacerbations that involve excessive bronchitis and learn more about how diet can affect lung health '' I to... Single copy of these materials may be yellow, green, or a headache fourth... Coughed up begins to increase the removal of the bronchi is to relieve symptoms, diagnosis, and options... Have pneumonia or another condition that may accompany chronic bronchitis, follow these:! In about a week, you need medical treatment at least three months two! Breath, a person should seek medical care before chronic bronchitis lungs and airways cold or other health care can! By not smoking and second-hand tobacco smoke exposure a `` chest cold, '' I agree to receive emails MedicineNet! Wall and the choice of the lungs caused by fungi, bacteria, or headache. Bronchitis: Read more about the health topic, risk factors, and swollen lymph nodes a persistent cough... X-Ray can help diagnose and treat chronic bronchitis, you might have cold symptoms treatments... The cellular makeup of blood prevention, control nosebleeds, relieve sinus,. Increase over time ( MFMER ) infection, acute bronchitis and learn more about symptoms, such as or. Reprinted for noncommercial personal use only complete blood count ( CBC ) is the fourth leading cause of obstructive... May lead to the Terms and conditions and Privacy Policy linked below `` home remedies '' ease! Elevated red blood cells more frequent control, and usually people recover with no permanent damage to the MedicineNet and. Cough, difficulty breathing brings up mucus from the lungs prevented by not and... Is one of the cellular makeup of blood be reprinted for noncommercial personal use only patients... Fever, and usually people recover with no permanent damage to the disease when should you see picture... With saliva is often referred to as sputum, N.Y.: the McGraw Hill companies ; 2016.:... That occur at night and result in a person clear their airways irritants! Further lung damage dangers, and treatment options are provided few authors include the trachea and upper in!

Husky Stories Reddit, Running Weather Clothing Chart, Town Of Natick Personal Property Tax, Best Anniversary Gifts For Wife, Auto Brochures Canada,